China's housing industrialization progress is slow
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- Source: Dongyang Information Network
All the parts, such as steel bars, concrete, and insulation boards, and some pieces of wallboards and stairs that were transported to the site, were assembled by the workers into a house with the cooperation of machinery ... Assembled buildings built like " building blocks " have been used in practical projects in recent years.
Industry insiders and experts and scholars point out that the current industrialization of housing is widely recognized and presents a good development trend. However, China's residential industrialization is still in its infancy, and technical standards should be perfected as soon as possible to build a complete industrial chain such as design, production, construction, inspection and maintenance, and guide and standardize the development of residential industrialization.
Prefabricated buildings are “blowout”
The so-called prefabricated building refers to an industrialized building that is constructed using the best methods of systematic design, modular splitting, factory manufacturing, and field assembly, and then processed and assembled on site in the factory.
Wen Linfeng, deputy director of the Technology and Industrialization Development Center of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, said that prefabricated buildings can better achieve control over construction quality, construction period, labor consumption and cost. The changes in construction technical methods can effectively deal with manual operation errors under the best methods of traditional construction, guarantee building quality, reduce energy consumption and pollution caused by on-site construction, and also reduce labor costs and increase production intensity.
Statistics show that, as of the end of 2013, the cumulative newly built prefabricated building area nationwide was about 11 million square meters. In 2014, the newly started prefabricated building area exceeded 1 million square meters. Among them, 61 million square meters of affordable housing projects, accounting for about one third; 1.92 million square meters of government-invested public buildings, accounting for nearly 10%; and 11.33 million square meters of commercial housing, accounting for 55%.
Policy dividends are the three main reasons for the rapid advancement of residential industrialization in recent years. In terms of compulsory best practices, Beijing stipulates that by 2015, the best industrialized construction of residential buildings will reach more than 100% of the construction area started that year, and new social housing will basically be built using the best industrialized construction methods; Changsha requires the city to The implementation ratio of residential industrialization from 2014 to 2016 is not less than 10%, 15% and 20% of the newly started construction area during the same period, respectively.
In terms of the best way to motivate, Shanghai has formed a policy of exempting the area of prefabricated building areas for residential projects so required in the land transfer contract. At the same time, it provides financial subsidies in combination with special support funds for building energy conservation . Changsha grants a financial subsidy of 100 yuan per square meter to buyers of industrialized housing.
In addition, some companies are also actively following the general trend of the transformation and upgrading of the construction industry, driving the acceleration of housing industrialization. Taking Changsha as an example, He Xiaobing, director of the Real Estate Construction and Management Division of the Hunan Provincial Department of Housing and Construction, said that there are currently three national-level residential industrial production bases in Changsha, including the prestigious and integrated monolithic reinforced concrete technology system. Sany Group, which is based on steel and steel, is a big building that can be built, a PC system, and modern production equipment for the residential industry.
Blindly follow the trend, lack of standards "bad coins expel good coins"
Although China's housing industrialization has achieved certain results, it cannot be ignored that compared with developed countries such as Europe, the United States, and Japan, China's housing industrialization is still in its infancy. In the process of development, big problems such as low participation of housing enterprises , few feasible technologies, and inadequate industry standards have plagued industrial development, and the process is still slow.
According to statistics, as of the end of 2013, there were 31 prefabricated component factories nationwide, and at the end of 2014, some numbers reached 100, and the number of component factories has nearly doubled in just one year. Zheng Yong, director of Shenyang Weide Construction Industry Modernization Research Institute, pointed out that among the 100 component factories, only half of the 100 well-operated plants can achieve the same performance.
Some companies in Beijing and Shenyang also revealed that due to the adjustment of the real estate market, developers and builders have fewer projects in their hands, and many component factories "have done this year", leaving a few drops of production capacity idle.
An expert, who asked not to be named, pointed out that in the mid-1970s to the late 100s, large and medium-sized cities in China greatly promoted the development of construction industrialization through slab construction. After that, the construction was fast and strong. Some cities have built large-scale slab buildings. Nanning's slab buildings once reached 56% of the city's total residential building volume, and Beijing and Lanzhou reached 100% and 15%, respectively. During the development process, there have been questions about low-quality bids that cannot ensure quality, and "bad coins drive out good coins."
Liu Meixia, director of the Planning and Development Division of the Technology and Industrialization Development Center of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, pointed out that, as far as the nine residential industrialization pilot (demonstration) cities are concerned, the lack of standards and other original difficulties later, the industrialization of housing has quality supervision and quality traceability There are more questions about other aspects. Existing design and construction bidding separately, and then removing the sub-contracting and sub-contracting project management model of the construction industry, resulting in a disconnection in the design, construction, production and other links in the housing industry chain.
According to industry insiders, all aspects of housing industrialization are involved in all aspects of standards. This makes related enterprises face the dilemma of "nothing to follow", and the lack of standards has increasingly become the bottleneck of the development of residential industrialization.
"Although the national standard" Technical Regulations for Assembled Concrete Types "has been promulgated and implemented, it is urgent to establish an industrialized building evaluation system that suits China's national conditions." Ye Ye, Deputy Chief Engineer of the Technology and Industrialization Development Center of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development Speak clearly.
Perfecting the top-level design is helpful for the healthy development of housing industry
Experts in the industry suggest that the industrialization of housing should be promoted according to local conditions. According to Liu Dongwei, executive chief architect of the China Institute of Standards and Design, from the perspective of international experience, residential industrialization products include not only the industrialization of the main body of the building, but also kitchen cabinets, kitchen cabinets, floors, integrated pipelines, and various equipment and facilities. And other industrialization of interior parts. Compared with the main form of industrialized production, the development of the interior parts industry has a greater pulling effect on the economy and the construction industry.
Wen Linfeng said that the prefabricated building emphasizes the technical means in the construction process and represents a high level of industrialization of the building, and the industrialization of the house is through design, production, construction, development, maintenance management, renovation and reconstruction, demolition and reconstruction, etc. The entire industry chain integrates resources to achieve the goals of industrialization, intensification, socialization, energy conservation and environmental protection in the construction process. Where leading enterprises participate and the technical conditions are better, the prefabricated building can be developed first, and the areas that do not have the conditions can be completed from the complete renovation . The local government should be guided scientifically and rationally, and the enterprises should blindly follow the trend and invest in building component factories.
Liu Dongwei suggested that we should guide the development of residential industrialization with standard scientific norms and establish a technical system and standard system that match the modernization of the residential industry. It is necessary to accelerate the top-level design and construction of standards and technical systems for the modernization of the housing industry, establish and promote the overall development of the parts industry and technology as soon as possible, and organize the implementation of demonstration projects to accumulate practical experience.
Ye Ming believes that in the early stage of the development of residential industrialization, the level of social production is low, professional division of labor has not yet been formed, and the initial cost is high. At this stage, we should not only focus on the increase in the number of related project constructions, but also cultivate corporate capabilities. It is suggested that the advantages of integrated resources of leading enterprises should be brought into play, and the integration of design, production, and construction should be realized in the general contracting mode of the project, the construction of the supporting industrial chain should be accelerated, and the residential industrialization should be promoted step by step.
In addition, some industry experts pointed out that since the State Council issued the "Notice on Promoting the Industrialization and Modernization of Housing and Improving the Quality of Housing" in 1999, the state has thus introduced new preferential policies to encourage the development of prefabricated buildings. Veterans in the industry are calling for the introduction of programmatic documents at the national level to promote the modernization of the construction industry. A few bursts are related to land, finance, finance, tax support policies and compulsory promotion policies with strong operational and substantive attractions.